Fiber Cable (OFC)
Fiber (OFC) cable can carry data at high speeds over long distances as compared to the copper cables, which was used in traditional telephone lines and DSL connection. Like the common Gigabit Ethernet (1Gbit/s) transmit signal on CAT5, CAT6 twisted pair copper cable up to almost 100m whereas 1Gbit/s Ethernet over fiber can travel to tens of kilometer and by amplifying the signal can travel up to hundreds of kilometre. That’s why now days direct fiber cable is used to deliver high speed internet connection.
FTTX is the new technology used to connect Home/ Building/ Premises etc for the internet/ TV / Phone delivery and accordingly know as FTTH (Fiber To The Home), FTTB (Fiber To The Building) and FTTP (Fiber To The Premises) etc. Fiber to the home (FTTH) is the delivery of a communications signal over optical fiber from the internet service provider equipment to a home or business, thereby replacing existing copper infrastructure such as telephone wires, DSL (Digital Subscriber Link) and coaxial cable.
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy)
SDH stands for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy and it refers to a multiplex technology, which is used in telecommunications for transmitting of signal in optical form. SDH technology works in optical ring in clockwise and anti-clock wise direction, in this was it gives protection to network elements in case of fiber cut scenario. In SDM technology we can have Optical, electrical and ethernet port for connecting various elements.
DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing)
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) is an optical multiplexing technology in which various SDH rings are connected (One SDH ring is one λ) to DWDM over existing fiber networks. DWDM works by combining and transmitting multiple signals (Lamda λ) simultaneously at different wavelengths on the same fiber. Now days up to 400G capacity links are operational and even more than that capacity testing is going on as the internet bandwidth demand is increasing day by day due to the evolution of 4G & 5G technology.